By John M. Watson and J. B. Stenlake (Auth.)
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Sinensis infection. The pathogenic effects of the two parasites are identical. Fasciola hepatica (Sheep liver-fluke). This cosmopolitan species is primarily a parasite of sheep and goats, in which it causes the disease known as liver-rot; but human infections occur from time to time in most endemic areas. It is a large (2-3 by 1 cm), leafshaped fluke which lives in the bile-ducts of the host, causing similar pathogenic effects and symptoms to the two preceding species. Toxaemia, however, is usually more marked.
Until the last quarter century the classical drug used in treatment was quinine, but atebrine (mepacrine, quinacrine) was then discovered to be specific. It has since been joined by plasmoquine (pamaquine), chloroquin (aralen diphosphate), paludrine (chlorguanide) and daraprim (pyrimethamine). These drugs differ in their efficiency against the different stages and species of the parasite. Malaria formerly killed millions of human beings every year and is still the most important single disease in warm climates, especially Asia, Africa and Southern Europe.
Extensive abscess formation and ulcération may occur in the mucosa and submucosa of the large intestine, and secondary infection may develop. Some cases are symptomless, but usually there is diarrhoea or dysentery with abdominal tenderness or pain and nausea or vomiting. Anorexia, headache and insomnia may develop. Diagnosis is by finding the active ciliates or their cysts in the faeces. Many treatments have been recommended but none has proved to be specific. 27 Q-~Q / ERYTHROCYTIC SCHIZOGONY ÊXOERYTHROCYTICVÎ*' SCHIZOGONY PROTOZOOLOGY Spontaneous cure may occur.
An Introduction to Parasitology by John M. Watson and J. B. Stenlake (Auth.)