By Roy D’Andrade (auth.)
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Extra resources for A Study of Personal and Cultural Values: American, Japanese, and Vietnamese
Related Research on the Circumplex Structure of Values Other cross-society studies have found the same circumplex. Schwartz, beginning with the items used by Rokeach, developed a list of over 50 value items, which were administered to a large number of societies. 2 presents the smallest space analysis for 56 value items adapted from Schwartz (1992). Correlations were computed across the means of the 80 samples and submitted to a smallest space analysis (Borg and Lingoes 1987). 2 summarizes a great amount of data, collected from all over the world, representing the most extensive cross-national research on values in the literature.
Tradition and law, for example, refer to institutions, not social groups. The groups that are included with collectivism are notable sources of social solidarity in modern society—family, religion, and nation—, which are sometimes referred to as the basic sources of diffuse primordial sentiments of solidarity. It is striking that the institutions of the market and the groups formed by companies are excluded from this dimension. Individualism values the singular I, collectivism the plural We. Perhaps the business world seems more on the side of the singular I than the plural We.
This explanation grew from an initial finding that the values endorsed by the Americans were quite different and that the values that these same Americans believed were typical of Americans, as discussed in the chapter on American values. This result suggested that people might live in shared value worlds that were not the same as the world of the actual personal values held by individuals. ” where __ could be any role, like that of being a mother, or a teacher, or a governor. Obviously, many of the values that are important to being a mother are quite different from the values that are important to being a business entrepreneur.
A Study of Personal and Cultural Values: American, Japanese, and Vietnamese by Roy D’Andrade (auth.)