Download A History of Western Philosophy by Bertrand Russell PDF

By Bertrand Russell

ISBN-10: 0671201581

ISBN-13: 9780671201586

given that its first e-book in 1945? Lord Russell's A heritage of Western Philosophy has been universally acclaimed because the impressive one-volume paintings at the topic -- unheard of in its comprehensiveness, its readability, its erudition, its grace and wit. In seventy-six chapters he strains philosophy from the increase of Greek civilization to the emergence of logical research within the 20th century. one of the philosophers thought of are: Pythagoras, Heraclitus, Parmenides, Empedocles, Anaxagoras, the Atomists, Protagoras, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, the Cynics, the Sceptics, the Epicureans, the Stoics, Plotinus, Ambrose, Jerome, Augustine, Benedict, Gregory the good, John the Scot, Aquinas, Duns Scotus, William of Occam, Machiavelli, Erasmus, extra, Bacon, Hobbes, Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Rousseau, Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, the Utilitarians, Marx, Bergson, James, Dewey, and finally the philosophers with whom Lord Russell himself is so much heavily linked -- Cantor, Frege, and Whitehead, co-author with Russell of the enormous Principia Mathematica.

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At Croton Pythagoras founded a society of disciples, which for a time was influential in that city. But in the end the citizens turned against him, and he moved to Metapontion (also in southern Italy), where he died. He soon became a mythical figure, credited with miracles and magic powers, but he was also the founder of a school ____________________ * The Greek cities of Sicily were in danger from the Carthaginians, but in Italy this danger was not felt to be imminent. of mathematicians. Pythagoras is one of the most interesting and puzzling men in history.

Anaximander had an argument to prove that the primal substance could not be water, or any other known element. If one of these were primal, it would conquer the others. Aristotle reports him as saying that these known elements are in opposition to one another. Air is cold, water is moist, and fire is hot. " The primal substance, therefore, must be neutral in this cosmic strife. There was an eternal motion, in the course of which was brought about the origin of the worlds. The worlds were not created, as in Jewish or Christian theology, but evolved.

For Pythagoras, the "passionate sympathetic contemplation" was intellectual, and issued in mathematical knowledge. In this way, through Pythagoreanism, "theory" gradually acquired its modern meaning; but for all who were inspired by Pythagoras it retained an element of ecstatic revelation. To those who have reluctantly learnt a little mathematics in school this may seem strange; but to those who have experienced the intoxicating delight of sudden understanding that mathematics gives, from time to time, to those who love it, the Pythagorean view will seem completely natural even if untrue.

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A History of Western Philosophy by Bertrand Russell


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